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Lolldaiga Hills Mammal Profiles

Southern tree hyrax | Bush hyrax | Rock hyrax | Savannah elephant Olive baboon Side-striped jackal Black-backed jackal Lion Leopard Striped hyaena Spotted hyaena White-tailed mongoose | African Buffalo | Bushbuck | Common eland | Common duiker | Bright’s gazelle | Impala | African savanna hare
Southern tree hyrax (Dendrohyrax arboreus)

Altitude range: 1900 mTree hyrax OPC
Main habitats: Riverine forest with large trees.
Percentage of Lolldaiga used: c. 1%
Group size: Typically solitary.
Abundance as of May 2015: <200 individuals

Other information: Confined to the c. 2 km² of riverine forest along the Timau River at the south end of the Ranch.


Bush hyrax (Heterohyrax brucei)

Altitude range: 1700 m _D200313 small
Main habitats: Kopjes in bushland at low altitude.
Percentage of Lolldaiga used: ??
Group size: ?? Often 1 – 3
Abundance as of May 2015: ??

Other information: Poorly-known on the Ranch. May be confined to those kopjes present at lowest altitude.


Rock hyrax (Procavia capensis)

Altitude range: 1700 – 2300 mRock hyrax small
Main habitats: Kopjes and bare rock ridges in bushland and forest.
Percentage of Lolldaiga used: 5 – 10%
Group size: 1 – 12
Abundance as of May 2015: >500 individuals

Other information: Confined to rocky ground with ledge and boulders. The most widespread and abundant hyrax on the Ranch.


Savanna elephant
(Loxodonta africana)

Altitude range: 1700 – 2300 m LHRP - Elephant Camera Trap small
Main habitats: All habitats.
Percentage of Lolldaiga used: 99%
Group size: 1 – 35
Abundance as of May 2015: 300 – 350 individuals

Other information: With the exception of olive baboon and leopard, this is probably the most widespread large mammal species on the Ranch. A once transient population is becoming increasingly resident. The current population is likely above carrying capacity for the Ranch–and causing considerable damage to trees and promoting the conversion of riverine forest and woodland to grassland. Damage to Ranch infrastructure is also considerable and increasing.


Olive baboon
(Papio anubis)

Altitude range: 1700 – 2300 m _D200161small
Main habitats: All habitats.
Percentage of Lolldaiga used: 100%
Group size: 30 – 150
Abundance as of May 2015: 2000 – 3000 individuals

Other information: This is the Ranch’s most widespread large mammal. There is no part of the Ranch that olive baboons do not use…including the steepest cliffs. All of the Ranch’s biggest cliffs are used as sleeping sites by this species.


Side-striped jackal
(Canis adustus

Altitude range:  2100 mDe Jong & Butynski - side striped jackal - kidepo small  
Main habitats:   Grassland and bushland
Percentage of Lolldaiga used:  ??    
Group size:  1   
Abundance as of May 2015:  1 individual.      

Other information:  Only evidence for this species is from several camera trap photographs obtained one night of one individual near the Main House.  Said to have been much more common on the Ranch a decade or more ago. 


Black-backed jackal
(Canis mesomelas)

Altitude range:  1700 – 2200 m _PJB9147small    
Main habitats:   Grassland, bushland, woodland
Percentage of Lolldaiga used:  70%    
Group size:   1 – 7 (parents with off-spring)
Abundance as of May 2015:  >200 individuals  

Other information:  One of the Ranch’s most abundant larger mammalian carnivores.


Lion
(Panthera leo

Altitude range:  1700 – 2200 mCam1 - Lion & elephant (5)small  
Main habitats:   Grassland, bushland, woodland
Percentage of Lolldaiga used:  85%   
Group size:   1 – 8
Abundance as of May 2015:  18 – 24 individuals      

Other information:  Widespread but most common in the grassland and bushland of the South Valley and North Valley.  Given the large home range of this species, it is likely that no individuals are permanently on Lolldaiga.  Roars heard during most nights.


Leopard
(Panthera pardus

Altitude range:  1700 – 2300 mLeopard LHL small    
Main habitats:   All habitats
Percentage of Lolldaiga used:  99%    
Group size:  1 – 3   
Abundance as of May 2015:  25 – 30 individuals       

Other information:   Next to olive baboon, this is probably the most widespread species on the Ranch.  The only sites not used by leopard are the steepest cliffs.  Previous research on the Ranch, and elsewhere in Laikipia, indicates a density of about 1 adult leopard/10 km².  With its rugged terrain and abundance of prey (perhaps particularly baboons and small antelopes), this Ranch may offer near-optimal habitat for leopard.


Striped hyaena
(Hyaena hyaena

Altitude range:  1800 – 2200 m7 - striped hyeana (3) small     
Main habitats:   Grassland, bushland, woodland, dry forest
Percentage of Lolldaiga used:  ??    
Group size:   Typically solitary
Abundance as of May 2015:  ??     

Other information:  Fairly widespread on the Ranch and frequently captured on camera traps, but remains poorly-known.


Spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta)

Altitude range:  1700 – 2300 mFebruary 2011 698 small    
Main habitats:   Grassland, bushland, woodland, dry forest
Percentage of Lolldaiga used:  95%   
Group size:  1 – 7  
Abundance as of May 2015:  >150 individuals       

Other information:  Call heard during most, if not every, night.
 


White-tailed mongoose (Ichneumia albicauda)

Altitude range:  1800 – 23000 m3 White tailed mongoose small 
Main habitats:   Bushland, woodland, dry forest
Percentage of Lolldaiga used:  70%   
Group size:  1 – 2   
Abundance as of May 2015:  >300 individuals       

Other information:  Perhaps the most common larger carnivore on the Ranch.  Nocturnal.  Almost all information obtained through camera trapping.


African buffalo
(Syncerus caffer)

Altitude range:  1700 – 2300 mIMG_3201 small     
Main habitats:  All habitats.  Only absent from the steepest ground.  
Percentage of Lolldaiga used:  99%   
Group size:  1 – 150   
Abundance as of May 2015:  280 – 350 individuals       

Other information:  Two large herds present, one of c. 75 individuals and one of c. 130 individuals.  Solitary bulls and small groups of bulls (2 – 6 individuals) present throughout the bushland, woodland, and forest. 


Bushbuck
(Tragelaphus scriptus)

Altitude range:  1800 – 2200 mDe Jong & Butynski - Bushbuck - Elgon small 
Main habitats:   Dense bushland, woodland, and forest.
Percentage of Lolldaiga used:  60% 
Group size:  Typically solitary or mother with one offspring. 
Abundance as of May 2015:  >200 individuals  

Other information:  Secretive, cryptic, and largely nocturnal.  Seldom seen, but camera traps indicate that bushbuck are widespread on Lolldaiga in the more wooded habitats. 


Common eland
(Tragelaphus oryx)

Altitude range:  1700 – 2200 m Cam 7 - common eland (1) small  
Main habitats:  All habitats.  Only absent from the steepest ground. 
Percentage of Lolldaiga used:  90 – 98%    
Group size:  1 – 105   
Abundance as of May 2015:  220 – 300 individuals       

Other information:  Lolldaiga has one of the best populations of eland in Laikipia and, perhaps its largest herd (c. 105 individuals).  This populations appears to be increasing.  Most common in the South Valley.  


Common duiker
(Sylvicapra grimmia)

Altitude range:  1800 – 2300 mAdult male common duiker - small  
Main habitats:  Dense bushland, woodland, and forest.   
Percentage of Lolldaiga used:  50 – 60%    
Group size:  Typically solitary.   
Abundance as of May 2015:  >300 individuals          

Other information:   Secretive, cryptic and nocturnal.  Most of the information on this species on Lolldaiga obtained from camera traps.


Bright’s gazelle (Nanger notata)

Altitude range:  1700 – 2100 mIMAG0491 - bright's gazelle small  
Main habitats:  Grassland, open bushland, and open woodland. 
Percentage of Lolldaiga used:  60 – 70%    
Group size:  1 – 30    
Abundance as of May 2015:  >400 individuals       

Other information:  Previously referred to as ‘Grant’s gazelle Nanger granti’, but this taxon now elevated to species status as Nanger notata.   


Impala (Aepyceros melampus)

Altitude range:  1700 – 2200 m impala 
Main habitats:  Present in all habitats except closed forest and on the steepest ground.   
Percentage of Lolldaiga used:  80 – 90%   
Group size:  1 – 40
Abundance as of May 2015:  >600 individuals       

Other information:  Probably the most common and readily-observed antelope on Lolldaiga.      


African savanna hare (Lepus victoriae)

Altitude range:  1700 – 2100 mCam7 - Hare small    
Main habitats:   Grassland, bushland, woodland, glades in forest
Percentage of Lolldaiga used:  90%    
Group size:   Typically solitary.
Abundance as of May 2015:  >3000 individuals.      

Other information:   This appears to be the only species of hare on the Ranch.  Widespread and common.

 

Southern tree hyrax | Bush hyrax | Rock hyrax | Savannah elephant Olive baboon Side-striped jackal Black-backed jackal Lion Leopard Striped hyaena Spotted hyaena White-tailed mongoose | African Buffalo | Bushbuck | Common eland | Common duiker | Bright’s gazelle | Impala | African savanna hare